A Framework for Enterprise Architecture:
A Strategic Planning model describes the overall mission of a business enterprise and the direction to be taken by the various activities and processes supporting that mission. This type of model provides a coherent view of an enterprise from the highest level. When connected to other objects and models, strategic planning constructs enable you to trace the motivations for and dependencies among the activities and processes you model. As a result, the Strategic Planning model provides a context for transforming your business from what it is today to what you want it to be.
The key concepts in a Strategic Plan model are Mission, Vision, Goal, Objective, Strategy, Project, Barrier, Guiding Principle, Business Drivers, and Management Initiatives.
Project ManagementA Project Management model defines the structure of a project by supporting the breakdown of a project into tasks, the breakdown of any task into subtasks, the sequential scheduling of tasks, and the assignment of people and resources to tasks.
The key concepts in a Project Management model are Project, Project Task, and Milestone.
Enterprise Structure ArchitectureOrganization Structure Architecture
An Organization Structure model identifies organizational entities and shows the hierarchical relationships among them. Depending on the focus of the modeling project, the Organization Structure models can include only the entities relevant to the activities and processes modeled rather than entire organizational structures. Additionally, some of these entities may be external to any hierarchies included in the model.
Organization Structure models can specify positions within organizations and identify people assigned to those positions. They can also include organizations outside of the enterprise that serve as suppliers, customers, or carriers or perform some other function.
The key concepts in an Organization Structure model are Company, Organization, Position, Person, and Location.
Team and Roles
A Team and Roles model identifies the operational entities responsible for carrying out the activities and processes. The members of a team typically belong to different functional groups within an enterprise, such as marketing or engineering, or across enterprises, such as the entities in a supply chain (for example, a supplier, a manufacturer, and a customer). As a result, a team usually consists of people with a variety of skills that they can apply to the team’s responsibilities.
The key concepts in a Team and Roles model are Team, Role, Responsibility, and Person.
A Business Relationship model identifies the critical relationships that exist among the companies that are the focus of the modeling. Each relationship identified can be categorized as either a supply-chain, financial, or peer relationship. Additionally, you can define start and end dates for each relationship and specify which resources and processes are involved in specific relationships.
The key concepts in a Business Relationship model are Company, Supply Chain Relationship, Financial Relationship, and Peer Relationship.
Process ArchitectureBusiness Process Architecture
A Business Process Architecture model describes the functional composition, or architecture, of a business — for example, the operational flow of a manufacturing process. Each business activity modeled can be related to the resources it consumes and the products it produces. The products produced by an activity can themselves by consumed as resources by other activities. This modeling technique, known as value-chain analysis, causes the analyst to focus on the key value each activity adds to the resources it consumes. At the highest level, a Business Process Architecture model also serves to define the scope of the project by showing the boundaries of the domain of interest.
The key concepts in a Business Process Architecture model are Activity, Product, Production, Consumption, and External Activity.
You can increase the value of a Business Process Architecture model by adding to it elements from other models so that you can directly see how they affect your process description. You can visually depict where your cross-functional processes pass information and control across your organizational boundaries. This is accomplished by adding organizations into a Business Process Architecture model and drawing swim lanes that group the processes owned by each organization. Additionally, you can show the software systems that automate a business activity.
Process Step Architecture
A Process Step model captures the dynamic behavior of a business process; that is, it represents how the process works. It shows the sequence of steps in the process, as well as conditions that must be met before the steps can be taken. It also shows different paths that can be taken through a process depending on the outcome of each step. Process Step models can represent concurrent execution paths with their synchronization points. They also support the identification of external events that can interrupt the regular flow of a process.
Process Step models serve a variety of purposes. For example, you can use them to model standalone workflows, define the control flow of operations, or describe the implementation of use cases.
The key concepts in a Process Step model are Start Event, Process Step, Next Step, Precondition, Branching Criteria, External Event, and Goal Event.
Data ArchitectureA Business Object model defines the information elements of a business process or system using an object-oriented technique. It identifies the types of objects, the relationships between them, their attributes, and the operations that that can be performed on them. This type of model is often used as a further breakdown of an activity or product from a Business Process Architecture model to define its information requirements.
Business Object models are similar to Class models, which are used in the context of application development and provide more detailed properties that target system design issues. The same class can appear in both types of models as a way of incrementally refining a business object definition until it has all the details required of a software design class. Alternatively, you can relate a class in a Business Object model to a class in a Class model through a refined by association. This technique supports traceability of design constructs across the different phases from business analysis to system design.
The key concepts in a Business Object model are Model Class, Association, Generalization, Attribute, and Operation. Other concepts that are mainly used in relational database environments are Table, Columns and Information Type.
Technology and Application ArchitecturesA Technology Architecture model identifies resources that in some way support the enterprise being modeled. It also identifies the dependent and cooperative relationships among those resources. You can use Technology Architecture models, for example, to represent the portfolio of technology assets in your enterprise or to describe the hardware and software requirements of software applications, including hardware elements, software components, databases, middleware, and custom-built applications.
You can create connections between the resources you define in a Technology Architecture model, the activities and processes that use them, and the organizations that own them. This enables traceability from any technology resource ultimately back to the business goals and objectives that it indirectly supports. By modeling the resources in this way, you can gauge their effectiveness and find ways to improve upon it.
The key concepts in a Technology Architecture model are Enterprise Resource, Software Resource, Hardware Resource, Location, Depends On, and Works With.
IT Standards and Principles ArchitectureIT Standards and Principles define the organizational and industry principles that govern the design and implementation strategies.
Associations between design models and standards and principles can be defined to explain design decisions.
The key concepts in the IT Standards and Principles Architecture are Standard and Principle.
Information Technology ArchitectureThe INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ARCHITECTURE component comprises the following architectures:
- Technology Architecture
- Application Architecture
- Data Architecture
- IT Standards and Principles
- Integrated approach covering all aspects of the Enterprise
- Alignment of Enterprise present and Future modes of operation
- Traceability of changes within the Enterprise